40 years before the hottest printing price was set

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Printing wages: in the first 40 years, the government set the the final say

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core tips: [China Packaging News] in the era of planned economy, the printing wages of books and periodicals are convenient for networking and communication by the local administrative department; The publishing house and the printing house will calculate the price according to the unified standard, and there is no other discussion. Beijing

[China Packaging News] in the era of planned economy, the price of books and periodicals printing is uniformly set by the local administrative department, and the publishing unit and the printing factory are priced according to this, there is no other discussion. The printing price set in Beijing is accepted by the major central publishing houses in Beijing, and is valued by printing houses all over the country. Provinces and cities often revise the local labor price with reference to Beijing labor price. Therefore, the printing price set in Beijing has a great impact after the release of this achievement. In the 40 years from 1951 to 1991, Beijing has revised the printing price seven times. In 1996, the Beijing Printing Association participated in the revision of the printing price in Beijing. Since then, the printing price standard has gradually withdrawn from the historical stage. The government adjusts the distribution of interests among publishing, printing and distribution by constantly revising the printing price to make it as reasonable as possible. In the past 40 years, the formulation of printing wage standards has protected and promoted the development of the printing industry to a certain extent. In this issue, Mr. Zhang Zhong, Deputy Secretary General of Beijing Printing Association, was invited to review the history of the formulation and revision of printing wage standards

On October 28, 1950, Premier Zhou Enlai of the State Council issued the "instructions of the State Council on improving and developing the national publishing industry". According to the spirit of the instructions, the General Administration of publishing issued the reorganization of the former General Administration Office of Xinhua Bookstore into three independent institutions, namely, the people's publishing house, the General Administration Office of Xinhua printing plant, and the head office of Xinhua Bookstore, which are directly under the General Administration of publishing, and the General Administration Office of Xinhua printing plant is in charge of each Xinhua printing plant directly under the General Administration of publishing. In May, 1951, the General Administration of publication reorganized the General Administration Office into the printing administration, which was in charge of the National Book and periodical printing industry. The general management office of Xinhua Printing Factory formulated and promulgated a "work price list of Beijing Tianjin district", which was announced to be implemented from June 1st, 1951. This "work price list" was formulated for Xinhua printing plants in Beijing and Tianjin, but after its publication, state-owned and large private printing plants in Beijing and all over the country will automatically follow it. This is the new printing price list, and it is also the basis for Beijing's previous revisions. When this price list was published, new China had just been established and was still in the period of economic recovery. There were few large printing plants in Beijing, and most private small enterprises were inconvenient to implement it. The same is true across the country

revision of printing price

following the publication of this printing price list by the General Administration of publication in June 1951, Beijing has carried out eight revisions to measure the toughness of high-molecular materials under high-speed impact or the resistance to fracture by 1996. In addition, a total of nine price lists have been published and implemented. Among them, the second edition in 1956 was revised, published and implemented by the publishing administration of the Ministry of culture. The rest are revised by the Beijing printing industry authority or jointly with the central unit and implemented with the approval of the Beijing Price Bureau. The main conditions of the previous revisions are as follows:

1. The 1956 revision

was revised by the publishing administration of the Ministry of culture and is applicable to all printing plants directly under Beijing. The revised "printing price list" has detailed classification, more comprehensive content and more specific calculation. It divides the printing price of books and periodicals into 7 parts, 34 price lists and 380 prices. The publication of the second book coincided with the climax of "public-private partnership". A number of large and medium-sized printing plants have been established one after another, and there is an urgent need to unify the work price. Therefore, this is a more authoritative and influential work price list for book printing. Its implementation laid the foundation for the unified management of the printing price of books and periodicals in Beijing. Its negative effect is that the price of offset printing is low, unreasonable, and has not been adjusted for a long time

2. The 1962 revision

after 1959, China's economy encountered temporary difficulties. In 1961, the publishing system formulated the policy of "breakeven and low profit" to reduce the cost of books, and the Beijing Municipal Bureau of culture accordingly proposed to revise the printing price. At the end of 1961, after checking and calculating, the new "calculation method of Beijing printing industry books and periodicals wages" was revised on the basis of the 1956 "wages list". The calculation method is slightly lower than the general price level in the labor price list, and the calculation method is also simplified. Shortly after the publication and implementation of this revised edition, the "Cultural Revolution" began, so that the price list, which was lower than the wages in 1956, continued to be implemented for 16 years, and was revised again in 1978

3. The principle determined during the revision of the 1978 revision is: Rise and fall, slightly improve, which is conducive to the promotion and use of new printing processes and technologies, and eliminate loss products. The 1978 revision is a low-key adjustment to the wages that have been implemented for 22 years, and the range is very small. Its working price level was only 3% higher than that in 1956, focusing on increasing the printing and binding prices of books and periodicals, and eliminating printing loss products. There are also great improvements in the calculation method, such as changing the typesetting from line calculation to surface calculation, and distinguishing the price of offset four-color printing from five and six color printing, which is conducive to the promotion of four-color printing, etc

4. The 1984 revision and its supplementary wages

there has been a long-term contradiction in the distribution of profits in the publishing system, that is, publishing houses' profits, followed by bookstores, and the printing industry, which invests and occupies the largest number of employees. The wage adjustment in 1978 was too low to alleviate this contradiction. To this end, in the second half of 1981, a joint group formed by the China India Company and the Beijing Publishing administration revised the wages in 1978. The principles determined at that time: first, increase the printing price by about 16%; The second is to solve the problem of unreasonable price comparison in the work price, and focus on improving the work price of typesetting, binding and short version printing; Third, it should be conducive to the promotion and application of the new process. This revision was not approved and implemented by the Beijing Municipal Price Bureau until July, 1984

the new work price was implemented soon. In November 1984, the Price Bureau approved the plan of the Publishing Bureau to increase the book price by 70%, which further aggravated the contradiction of unreasonable distribution of interests within the publishing system. To this end, the enterprises affiliated to the China India Company put forward a new price list to increase the printing price at the beginning of 1985, and the Publishing Bureau agreed to implement it in the factories and societies directly under it

5. The 1988 revision

in August 1987, the book branch of the printing professional committee of the China printing and Equipment Industry Association put forward a printing price investigation report entitled "the problem of unreasonable printing prices of books and periodicals needs to be solved urgently". The report greatly promoted the implementation of the Beijing printing price approved by the Municipal Price Bureau in January 1988 and jointly revised by China Printing Corporation and Beijing Printing Industry Corporation. In this revision, the overall level of printing wages has increased by about 25% compared with 1984, and the calculation method is simpler. For example, the bookbinding charge will be calculated in this book (volume) instead of in the past, which is simple and easy

6. 1991 revision

in January 1991, Beijing Printing Industry Corporation submitted a request for instructions on Revising the calculation method of labor price of printing products in Beijing to the Municipal Price Bureau. In July, the Beijing Municipal Price Bureau and the Beijing Printing Industry Corporation jointly issued a notice on the implementation of the new Beijing method for calculating the labor price of printing products, requiring "all printing enterprises (excluding newspaper and trademark printing projects), binding plants and typesetting plants in Beijing to implement the new method for calculating the labor price". On November 17, 1992, the Beijing Municipal Price Bureau issued a "notice on liberalizing the labor price of printing new products". The publication and implementation of this document shall prevail. The previously revised labor price is set by the government, which is a mandatory price and binding on publishers and enterprises; Since then, the labor price revised by the association is a guiding price, which is not binding

7. In the second half of 1992, the pricing power of printing wages was not only transferred to printing enterprises, but also the prices of most commodities except a few varieties were liberalized, and the overall price level once fluctuated greatly. The printing industry is not adapted to this. Although the government has given independent pricing power, due to the habit of implementing unified prices for many years, the vast majority of enterprises still charge according to the labor price standard set in 1991, resulting in a decline in profits year by year. Facing this situation, most enterprises hope that the competent business departments and associations will formulate a unified standard. Therefore, in April, 1994, the Beijing Printing Group Corporation, the Beijing Printing Technology Association, and the inter factory Friendship Association of state-owned book and periodical printing plants in Beijing jointly revised the guiding price

8. The 1996 revision

"in view of the large increase in the cost of printing enterprises in the past two years, most book and periodical printing enterprises are facing losses. Through the inflection point to identify the conditions of subordination, it is necessary to strengthen the coordination and management of printing prices in the industry in order to increase the vitality of enterprises and promote the development of the printing industry." For this reason, Beijing Printing Group Corporation and Beijing Printing Association jointly revised and adjusted the Beijing printing price in June, 1996

nowadays, with the gradual establishment of the socialist market economic system, printing wages have been completely liberalized, and the price bureau is no longer responsible for unifying wages. The labor price is completely regulated by the market, and bilateral negotiation has been adopted between publishing units and book printing enterprises when settling printing and processing fees. Mr. Zhang said that although the wages were liberalized, there was still a generally recognized average price in the society. Now, many enterprises still refer to the revised labor price in 1994

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